The Mosholu Parkway is a hybrid freeway-standard parkway and grade-level roadway in the New York City borough of the Bronx, constructed from 1935 to 1937 as part of the roadway network created under Robert Moses. The roadway extends for 3.0 miles (4.8 km) between the New York Botanical Garden (where its southeast end meets the Bronx River Parkway) and Van Cortlandt Park (where its northwest end meets the Henry Hudson Parkway). The New York City Department of Transportation is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the roadway while the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation is responsible for the surrounding rights-of-way. The parkway is designated as New York State Route 908F (NY 908F), an unsigned reference route, by the New York State Department of Transportation.
The Mosholu Parkway begins at exit 8E of the Bronx River Parkway. It heads northward as an arterial boulevard through the northern parts of the Bronx. The highway crosses through Bedford Park, passing Bainbridge Avenue. It intersects with the Grand Concourse afterwards, with Jerome Avenue, Sedgwick Avenue and West Gun Hill Road soon after. Within Van Cortlandt Park, the parkway becomes a limited-access freeway, with exits for the southbound Major Deegan Expressway (Interstate 87) and the Henry Hudson Parkway near its northern terminus at the Westchester County line (where it turns into the Saw Mill River Parkway).
A bikeway, part of the East Coast Greenway, runs along the northeast side of the parkway from Bronx Park to Van Cortlandt Park, connecting through the park to other trails and playing fields and to Broadway.
“Mosholu” is an Algonquin word meaning “smooth stones” or “small stones”, and was first applied to the nearby creek now known as Tibbetts Brook. The southern end of the parkway was once home to another creek, running under what is now Middlebrook Road, which supplied water to a British fort located on old Van Cortlandt Avenue East during the American Revolutionary War.
History of Bronx Victory Memorial
This striking bronze figural group honors the local servicemen who paid the supreme sacrifice during World War I (1914-1918). At the end of the War in 1918, local citizens formed the Bronx Victory Memorial Association. They commissioned Irish-born, self-taught artist Jerome Connor (1875-1943) to create the war memorial. His conception depicts a fallen soldier, protected by a comrade who stands vigilant with bayonet in hand. At his feet, an eagle with wings spread symbolizes the victorious call to arms. The sculpture is set upon a circular pedestal of Rockport and Deer Isle pink granite designed by architect Arthur George Waldreaon and is framed by a bed of trees and floral beds.
World War I began after the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. War ensued, pitting France, Great Britain, and Russia against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire. The United States initially declared its neutrality, but this decision soon changed when Germany announced in February 1917 that it would no longer respect the neutrality of the seas, instructing U-boat commanders to attack any Allied vessel. President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) protested this action and within three weeks the U.S. formally declared war on Germany and its allies.
The sheer numbers of fresh U.S. troops finally tipped the balance of favor toward the Allied forces, and the long stalemate was broken. German forces collapsed under the weight of war and of political revolt in their home country, and sought out an end to the conflict. An armistice was signed on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918.
The most striking feature of World War I was the unprecedented human devastation it caused. It is estimated that of the 61.5 million soldiers who fought in the war, from the European trenches to the Far East, 8.5 million were killed, 7 million were permanently injured or maimed, and an additional 12.5 suffered recoverable injuries. Because of its late entry into the war the United States suffered among the fewest losses, at approximately 116,000.
Memorial ceremonies in honor of the war dead were held throughout the participating countries on the first anniversary of the war’s end, November 11, 1919. President Wilson proclaimed this day “Armistice Day.” Following the lead of France and Great Britain, the United States laid an unknown soldier to rest in Washington, D.C. on November 11, 1921. In the following years, 27 states adopted laws declaring November 11 a legal holiday, and the day was officially named “Armistice Day” on June 4, 1926. Following the United States’ encounters with warfare in World War II (1939-1945) and Korea (1950-1953), on June 1, 1954, President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) signed a bill renaming Armistice Day “Veterans Day.”
Seven years after the Armistice, this sculpture was unveiled before thousands of spectators on November 11, 1925. In 1989 it was conserved through the Municipal Art Society’s Adopt-A-Monument Program.